The scorpion fauna of Iran was first explored by Olivier. Later the Russian zoologist, Alexei Andreevich Byalynitskii-Birulya produced a series of publications on scorpions from Iran. His reports were mainly based on specimens collected by another Russian zoologist, Nicholas A. Zarudny. These specimens were deposited in the zoological museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg (ZISP).
They included well known species and several rare taxa which have been the subject of several recent taxonomic and biogeographic studies. Birula described three genera and seven species in 1900, five genera and nine species in 1903, five genera and 11 species in 1905, and four genera and 17 species in 1917, clearly making significant contributions to our knowledge of scorpions in Iran. A few scorpion species were also described by the pioneering zoologists Pocock and Werner. Recently, many revisionary works, descriptions of new taxa and distributional records of Iranian scorpions were published by Farzanpay (1986, 1987, 1988), Habibi (1971), Fet (1989, 1997) Fet et al. (2001), Kovarik (1997, 2003, 2004, 2007), Kovarik & Fet (2006a,b), Lourenco (2000), Lourenco & Pezier. (2002), Mirshamsi et al (2011a, b) Navidpour et al. (2008a, b, c, d, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013), El- Hennawy, 1992; Akbari, 2007. Vachon (1966) reported nine genera and 15 species. Two Iranian scorpiologists, Talat Habibi and Reza Farzanpay, made contributions during the same period. Habibi (1971) recorded 24 species belong to 11 genera and, Farzanpay (1987, 1988) recorded 23 species belong to 17 genera. Farzanpay (1987) claimed that four genera, Olivierus, Simonoides, Sassanidotus, and Razianus, had not been previously described.
Iran is thought to have many remarkable venomous animals’ fauna such as scorpion. Different fatal species such as Andrectonus genus are found in throughout the semi-arid and arid regions in the Iranian neighbor’s countries except to the north countries.
The Iranian scorpion’s fauna has three families, which consists of over 30 named species and 18 subspecies from 17 genuses. The families are Buthidae, Hemiscorpionidae and scorpionidae.